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Kimchi
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Kimchi, the symbol of traditional Korean food, is gaining popularity among people around the world. Major ingredients of kimchi include Chinese cabbage, radish, red pepper and garlic.
Materials of kimchi are grown in Korea's unique environment: 
four distinct seasons, clean air and water and fertile soil.
Kimchi has a variety of healthful properties. Lactic acid fermentation of kimchi, which arises mainly from pickled fish and spices, inhibits or destroys harmful germs such as saprophytes.
Capsaicin in red pepper and Scordinin in garlic have anti-carcinogenic effect, help improve stamina and reduce body fat.
Kimchi is very delicious and has high nutritional value. Moreover, it can match well with virtually all the foods around the world.
Kimchi sandwich and kimchi fried rice are good examples. 
Given all this, kimchi has a great potential to become widely enjoyed
by people around the world.
This character is the image, along with the oval that symbolizes diet foods, that expresses the fermented product, 'Kimchi' that guards health and environment.
It personifies the Korean traditional health food 'Kimchi' that contains various nutritional elements.
Well-fermented kimchi has anti-biotic functions as lactic acid bacteria produced in the process of fermentation that suppresses growth of harmful bacteria.

This bacteria not only gives a sour rich flavor to matured kimchi but also prevents excessive fermentation by restraining growth of other bacteria in the intestines.
Not only that, substances in kimchi prevent hyperacidity resulting from excessive intake of meat and other acidic foods.

Most ingredients of kimchi are rich in water and low in other nutrients.
However, lactic acid in kimchi restrains the growth of harmful bacteria in intestines and help relieve intestinal disorders.

In addition, the lactic acid is efficacious for preventing adult diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and even gastrointestinal cancers.
Not only that, the juice from vegetables and salt in kimchi help intestines remain clean.
Some substances in kimchi help promote the secretion of pepsin (protein-digestive enzyme) and maintain the presence of a certain number of bacteria.

 

                                      
red pepper Kimchi has played a role as an important source of nutrients in fermented vegetables during the long winter months. 

It has different kinds of nutrients based on materials and the level of fermentation. Usually, the materials used in making kimchi have few calories and low levels of sugar, but contain high amounts of fibers, diverse vitamins (especially vitamins A and C), and minerals (such as calcium and iron). 

The nutrients produced during fermentation (lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid) help protect against cancer and germs.

The fiber in cabbage is not a nutrient, but it aids digestion, allows smooth movement of food through the intestines, and helps prevent constipation and intestine cancer. 
Red chili peppers and garlic help to lower blood cholesterol and aid in blood clotting. The nutrients and activities of the various micro-organisms produced during fermentation are also very beneficial to the human body

cabbage cabbage Sfood16.jpg

Material Nutrients Function / Qualities
Green vegetables including cabbage Vitamin A, Calcium, Iron, Potassium, Vitamins The high quality of cabbage is characterized by the fresh leaves, a thin peel, and heavy weight.
Red chili peppers vitamin A and C Rich is vitamins A and C: 37 times the amount in apples and 7 times that of oranges. The quality of red chili peppers is determined by how well they were dried, a sleek outer skin, no wrinkles, and an even vivid color.
Cucumbers Elaterin, Peptin, Proteins, Acids, Potassium, and Phosphate Good digestion and urination
Korean lettuce   Stimulates appetite, keeps blood clean, and makes stomach strong.
Green onions Alicerpide, Vitamin A & C Keeps the body warm, helps the circulation, and strengthens the intestine. Superior ones have a long and straight body and tiny spring roots.
Oysters Calcium, Iron, Glycogen, Essential Amino Acids, Glutamic Acid, Glycine  
Radishes Fiber, Protein, Anti-carcinogenic Ingredients Cures virulent tumors or cancer, inside and outside of body. High quality radishes taste less spicey.
Mustard leaf Mineral, Vitamin A & C High quality produce has tender and shiny leaves.
Dropwort Vitamins Effective for lowering fever, reducing blood pressure, and also for remedying sun stroke.
Leeks   Highly nutritious and has a good effect on digestion. It smells like garlic as a sulphuric compound.
Garlic Alilcerpide, Alitin Stimulates the immune system and has an antibacterial effect. It also promotes the absorption of vitamin B1 and the fast digestion of proteins.
Ginger Minerals Good for lowering the cholesterol level in body. Good ones have a strong chili fragrance and peel easily.
Pickled fish paste Protein, Amino Acids, Fat, Calcium Helps body to be alkalized, making up for nutrients which can be deficient in vegetables.



Lactic Acid Bacteria
The well fermented kimchi has more lactic acid bacteria than yogurt. This bacteria is known to be especially good for the intestines and has anti-germ functions.

Acetic Acid
Acetic acid is produced differently according to the materials used, fermentation temperature and period, and level of salt. The flavor depends on the level of acetic acid. Overall, kimchi that is fermented with less salt at a low temperature has a better taste.

Amino Acids
The special flavor of kimchi depends not only on acetic acid, but also carbon gas, condiments, and amino acids. Amino acids are produced by breaking down protein in pickled fish paste and oysters. Researchers have found that kimchi contains 17 different kinds of amino acids

Vitamins
Kimchi has high levels Vitamin B, C, and Beta Carotene. The levels of Vitamin B1 and B2, and B12 double after a 3 week-fermentation period.

[Chart 1] Nutrition of major ingredients of kimchi (per 100)
  Chinese
cabbage
radish leaves
of
radish
cabbage leek cucumber green onion young radish lettuce Indian mustard
calory(kcal) 16 33 53 29 31 13 29 29 48 19
water(%) 94.7 90.3 83.7 92.4 89.8 96.6 91.2 89.4 82.7 92.5
protein (g) 1.3 2.0 3.0 1.5 4.3 0.6 1.7 2.0 3.0 2.9
fat(g) 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.6 1.0
sugar(g) 2.4 6.1 10.6 4.7 3.7 1.7 4.7 4.5 8.4 2.0
fiber(g) 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.7 1.2 0.6 1.4 0.9 1.7 1.2
minerals(mg) 0.5 0.6 1.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 2.6 3.6 1.3
calcium(mg) 70 62 229 43 34 26 110 15 76 110
phosphorus(mg) 63 29 49 43 27 35 32 161 34 55
iron(mg) 0.3 0.9 5.8 0.3 2.9 - 1.0 1.7 3.7 1.7
Vit.A(R.E) 225 - 762 3 638 18 140 230 1018 287
Vit.B1(mg) 0.06 00.1 0.06 0.05 0.41 0.01 0.06 0.06 0.35 0.09
Vit.B2(mg) 0.09 0.03 0.30 0.29 0.06 0.02 0.10 0.27 0.09 0.21
Niacin(mg) 0.4 3.9 10.0 0.1 0 0.4 1.5 0.5 0.1 0.9
Vit.C(mg) 28 19 62 44 40 9 22 46 8 70
data : 6th revision of recommended dietary allowances for Koreans (year 1995)

 

[Chart 2] nutritional value of various kimchi (per 100g)
  baechu kimchi yoelmu kimchi(young radish kimchi) cucheong kimchi(radish leaves kimchi) kakdugi (radish kimchi) dongchimi green onion kimchi
calory(kcal) 29 31 24 40 9 55
water(%) 88.8 88.6 85.9 87.7 93.6 84.2
protein(g) 2.2 3.0 2.7 2.1 0.7 3.4
fat(g) 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.2 2.3
sugarg(g) 4.7 4.6 2.4 7.0 1.1 5.7
fiber(g) 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.4 2.1
minerals(mg) 0.5 0.4 0.6 2.6 3.6 1.4
calcium(mg) 45 44 3 43 1 158
phosphorus(mg) 28 28 35 23 12 74
iron(mg) 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 1.9
Vit.A(R.E) 16 16 149 9 6 154
Vit.B1(mg) 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.07
Vit.B2(mg) 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.03 0.15
Niacin(mg) 0.5 0.4 3.3 0.4 1.0 0.1
Vit.C(mg) 21 22 19 11 7 2.1
data: food-analysis diagram, National Institute of Nutrition Improvement, Rural Development Administration (year 1995)

Storing Kimchi

Kimchi develops a unique flavor that is different from that of its original ingredients and condiments and becomes tasty as it ferments.
The osmotic pressure phenomenon, in which water exhausted, helps mature Kimchi. As a result, the green smell of vegetables disappears and necessary bacteria and enzymes are produced. This process determines the taste and smell of Kimchi.

Bacteria as well as condiments play an important role in fermenting Kimchi. Lactic acid makes Kimchi mature and an enzyme in combination with the organic elements of vegetables makes it tasty. It also prevents it from spoiling.
Salt, which prompts osmotic pressure, is used in all kinds of Kimchi to salt the vegetables and makes it taste good. Furthermore, it deactivates bacteria so that the Kimchi can be preserved for a long time.

Once salt penetrates into the vegetables, they dehydrate. The salt on the outside of the vegetables increases the osmotic pressure and enhances the permeability.
This function of salt applies not only to vegetables but also to other organic materials. Accordingly, the osmotic pressure of salt stops bacteria's activities, resulting in the their disappearance or the slowdown of enzyme.

Fermentation is caused mainly by bacteria in the Kimchi ingredients and, in particular, is controlled by the amount of salt and the temperature.
In summer, salty Kimchi (5% salt content) needs about 2 days, while ordinary Kimchi (3.5% salt content) requires one day to mature. However, during Kimjang season (when the temperature stays between 7 to 14C), salty Kimchi takes 10 to 18 days to mature, while ordinary Kimchi takes 5 to 12 days.

The higher the temperature, the faster Kimchi matures. Kimchi is most flavorful when it matures at a temperature of 5~10 degrees C for 2 to 3 weeks.
The appropriate salt concentration of the Kimjang Kimchi for winter is around 2~3%, while for spring and summer it is 4~5% and 5% respectively.
The sweet taste of Korean cabbages and radishes is lost if it is preserved with too much salt or if it is preserved for too long.

The amount of salt influences the reproduction of bacteria. In the initial maturing stage, lactic acid fermentation occurs as a result of the increased bacteria generating lactic acid.
The generated lactic acid and the salt prevent the vegetables from spoiling.

When it comes to the matter of producing Kimchi on a commercial scale, the preservation of Kimchi is the most difficult thing to resolve. Since Kimchi continues to ferment, it maintains the high balance of nutrition while maturing. After the peak of maturation, some bacteria continue to create an acid, which softens the fiber of the Kimchi and transforms the ingredients.

This chemical phenomenon is called the phenomenon of over-maturation and it is often found in long-preserved Kimjang Kimchi or in summer Kimchi.
In the late period of fermentation, an enzyme called polygalactulonaze decomposes pectin.
This chemical reaction softens Kimchi fiber. Polygalactulonaze rapidly increases as the external Kimchi juice is formed. The over-maturation of Kimchi is a challenging problem to be solved with regard to storage and distribution.

Kimchi, in general, has a good taste when properly matured, but it is easily acidified in response to high temperature and becomes inedible within two to three days. For this reason, the shelf life of Kimchi is quite limited without proper temperature control.

The best way to prevent over-maturation is to control the bacteria reproduction, while keeping the quality of the Kimchi unchanged, since over-maturation of Kimchi is caused by the action of bacteria.
Storing Kimchi

Bvfp3.jpg Clay pots are usually used to preserve its contents from spoiling by circulating air through them. Crockery is made with a method of oxidation in which it is burnt through air and flame together.

The pots can keep kimchi fresh for a long time. The shapes of the pots have developed differently in various regions. There are 2 main types of containers which are made of wood and earth.

Chiri405.jpg A crock jar terrace is usually located in the kitchen, an inner garden, or a rear garden surrounded with a stone fence. In the countryside, people usually buried the kimchi jar in the ground, covering them with a bundle of straw to protect it from snow and rain and to lessen the    temperature change.

Southern Korea crocks are small, short, and the middle is wider than the top and bottom.

Central Korea- crocks are tall, narrow, well shaped, and have wide mouths to gather more heat from sun.

Northern Korea- crocks are much larger than those of the southern region because of the longer winter.

Kimch098.jpg
from Kyonggi Province
Kimch097.jpg
from the Kyongsang Provinces
 
Kimjang is a traditional Korean event in which Kimchi is prepared for Um-dong (the coldest 3 or 4 months of winter). The main ingredients of Kimjang Kimchi are Korean cabbage and radish.

Additional ingredients include spicy vegetables such as parsley, mustard leaf, garlic, green onion and ginger.
Pickled fish and powdered red pepper are used to give Kimchi its unique flavors.

To fully enjoy its flavor, it is very important to prevent Kimchi from turning sour.
Kimchi contains vitamins A, C and a number of lactic acids, which are produced as Kimchi ferments. Lactic acid generates chemical reaction, which is effective to curing intestinal disorders.

In winter, vitamin C deficiency can occur because vegetable supply is quite short. Without Kimjang Kimchi, we would have ruined our health.

Since Kimchi is so nutritious in many ways, it is called a "winter staple". This is why you can find Kimchi in any region and in any household in Korea.

Kim Jang Season

Each big Korean city has a temporary market for Kimjang when 
Kimchi is being made at the onset of the winter season. 
Bangadari cabbage, which is raised in Bangadari on the outskirts 
of Seoul, is regarded as the best cabbage.

Gaesung cabbage is suitable for Possam Kimchi (wrapped-up Kimchi) because its middle part is thin and its leaves are large.
Traditional Korean families used one or two hundred head of Korean cabbages for Kimjang. Nowadays, thanks to green house cultivation, vegetables are produced in all four seasons. As a result, the amount 
of Kimjang Kimchi is decreasing.

 
Pumasi of KIMJANG

Pumasi is the Korean tradition of helping each other during the farmers' busiest season. Neighbors or relatives usually set up the schedule to help each other in turn.

The Pumasi tradition is one of the living traditions that originated from the Korean spirit of community. All materials for Kimjang are prepared in advance. First you trim the cabbages. Then, you tear off the tough outer leaves and cut off the root of the cabbages.

Then you put them into salty water for about 10 hours. During this time, Kimchi stuffing is made from condiments and trimmed radish. After cleaning them in water, put them in a wicker tray to drain and place the Kimchi stuffing in the vessel.

Finally fill the cabbage leaves with Kimchi stuffing. Use the yellow inside leaves of the cabbage to wrap the Kimchi stuffing. The specific ingredients of Kimchi stuffing are sliced radish, parsley, mustard leaf, green onion, garlic, ginger, salted fish juice, rough salt, powered red pepper, and seaweed.

Depending on tastes, Pyogo mushroom, raw oyster, raw shrimp, or fish can be added.

 
Maturing of KIMCHI

Kimjang Kimchi becomes the most delicious when the temperature is kept at around 5 degrees. For the best result, Kimchi is preserved in the Kimchi storage area and the Kimchi jar is covered with a straw cushion.

The jars are moved from time on the ground of the Kimchi storage. The straw cushion keeps out the cold and reproduces the bacteria, which make Kimchi mature.
Korean farm families have individually owned their straw-fenced Kimchi storage in their backyard.

 

Kimchi-Making Event (Kimjang)

Kimch270.jpgKimjang (Kimchi-making) usually started in late October or early November and lasted for 2 or 3 days with help from many people. The number of cabbages prepared depended on the number of household members, usually between 100 and 200 cabbages.

Considering the number of cabbages and amount of preparation for Kimjang, it was not a job for just 1 or 2 persons. People considered it as a major annual event, so close relatives, several neighbor housewives, and a few strong men all pitched in and worked together.
People who participated in Kimjang helped wash cabbages, prepared materials, and stuffed ingredients inside each cabbage leaf.

The task usually lasted all day for 2-3 days, so the hostess treated each person to a big lunch every day. After the kimchi-making was done, she also gave some of the kimchi to the participants.
When one of the other participants was ready to do their own Kimjang, all of members get together again to help her out.

In this way, everyone finished their kimchi-making with help from everyone else. Although the event has grown less important in recent years due to changes in life styles and family size, it was great fun to enjoy the warm heart of neighbors and relatives in times past.

materials Materials
5 cabbages, 2 radishes, 5 cloves of garlics, 5 cups of thick salt, 4 green onions, 1 bundle of dropwort. 3 ginger roots, 300g of mustard leaves, 1/2 cup of fish paste, 2 cups of red chili pepper, 1 cup of sticky rice paste, 2 cups of sugar, 2 cups of oysters

Recipe
  1. After cleaning the cabbages, cut them into 2 or 4 pieces.
  2. Prepare salted water with a ratio of 2.5 cups of salt to 10 cups of water, then soak the cabbages in it for 6-8 hours.
  3. Rinse the soaked cabbages in running water 3 times and then wait for them to dry a bit.
  4. Cut dropwort, green onions, and radishes into lengths of 5 cm, then chop the garlic and ginger.
  5. Prepare fish paste and add red chili pepper to it with sticky rice paste.
  6. Wash oysters in salt water.
  7. Mix the ingredients from steps 4, 5, and 6.
  8. Put the mixture inside of each leaf then store in a kimchi pot. On the top, cover cabbage with a leaf and sprinkle some salt. Then place a heavy stone on top to compress it.
Kimch023.jpg Kimch022.jpg

Kimch065.jpg Kimch066.jpg Kimch067.jpg Kimch068.jpg

              Materials of Kimchi
Category Material Names
Main Materials Vegetables cabbage, radish, eggplant, cucumber, lettuce, chili pepper leaves, green chili pepper, garlic, Korean lettuce, bean sprout, mustard leaf, green onion, scallion, dropwort, sweet potato, turnip
Meat / Fish dried pollack, flatfish, oyster, frozen pollack, pheasant, chicken, abalone
Side Materials Vegetables mustard leaf, dropwort, carrot, turnip, crown daisy
Grains barley, sticky rice, flour, hulled millet, malt, malted rice
Others mushrooms, bamboo leaves
Meat / Fish oysters, frozen pollack, squid, beef, pork, cod, octopus, salmon, shrimp, croaker
Spices green onion, garlic, powdered red chili pepper, scallions, mustard, black pepper, onions, cinnamon
Condiments salt, soy sauce, vinegar, artificial condiments, sesame oil, sesame seeds, taffy
Fish Paste salted shrimp paste, salted anchovy paste, salted hair tail paste, salted clam paste, salted croaker paste, salted turbo paste

Kimch517.jpg Types of Pickled Fish Paste

Three different kinds of different fish pastes are used in making kimchi: pickled sea food paste, fermented rice punch (sikhae), and pickled fish paste. Adding pickled fish paste into kimchi promotes the fermentation process and activates the level of amino acids, enhancing the taste and nutritional value of the kimchi.

  1. Pickled Seafood Paste
    Pickled sea food paste has 2 types:
    - fermented with only salt (pickled shrimp paste, pickled clam paste, pickled hair tail paste, pickled anchovy paste)
    - salt and other seasonings (pickled pollack roe paste, pickled squid paste, pickled gill paste, pickled spicy oyster paste)

    Kimch513.jpg Kimch514.jpg Kimch515.jpg Kimch516.jpg


  2. Pickled Fish Paste (Sikhae)
    Sikhae differs from pickled sea food in that its materials are grains.
    Grains are matured with rice, malt, millet, and hot pepper powder or reddish shreds.

    Kimch521.jpg
  3. Pickled Fish Paste
    Unlike other paste, this pickled fish paste needs to be fermented longer (about 6-24 months). The longer the maturation period, the more active hydrolysis is on fish, achieving a pickled fish paste.

Kimch492.jpg Kimch493.jpg
packaged pickled fish paste

Types of Kimchi


Types of kimchi differ from region to region, depending on harvest and weather conditions. Each family also has its own recipe handed down from generation to generation.

The number of specific kimchi types can not be easily counted. However, the Korean Food Academy has categorized over 100 different types.

The flavor depends on ingredients, condiments, the amount of salt, and level of spice used in each region. Korea's various regions produce different types of agricultural products, and this is reflected in each region's type of kimchi.

The southern provinces (North and South Cholla Provinces and North and South Kyongsang Provinces) tend to use more salt and seafood so the taste is stronger and sweeter. To the north, kimchi tastes less salty and is very mild.


Various Types of Kimchi

picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
Gat Kimchi
(Mustard Leaf)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
Baech'u Keot'cheoli
(Cabbage)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
Oi Sobaki
(Cucumber)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
Muuch'ae Kimchi
(Thin-Sliced Radish)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
Nabak Kimchi
(Square-Sliced Radish)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
Bossam Kimchi
(Wrapped Cabbage)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
Ch'ongak Kimchi
(Ponytail Radish)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
T'ong Baegu'u Kimchi
(Whole Cabbage)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
Bae Kimchi
(Cabbage Without Pepper)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
Goldulbbaegi Kimchi
(Korean Lettuce)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
P'a Kimchi
(Green Onion)
picture provided by Kwangju Tourism Organization
Ggaktugi
(Cubed Radish)

Kimch298.jpgTemple Kimchi
Buddhism has a strong influence on Korean life, including food. According to strict Buddhist doctrine, people must eat only vegetables and plants. Mahayana (Daseung Buddhism) has a tradition to serve food to the public in a way to accumulate their virtuous believes that making food and eating it is self-discipline.

Kimch299.jpg The important feature of temple kimchi is its mild taste compared to others. Monks do not use strong flavored condiments and vegetables. Also, they do not use pickled fish paste since they believe the raw material causes anger. Instead, they use many kinds of herbs, pine nuts, wild sesame, peanuts, pumpkin, flour juices, and potato-boiled water.


Temple Kimchi in Four Seasons
Winter Baech'u Kimchi, Chonggak Kimchi, Jang kimchi, Bae Kimchi, Ggaktugi, Bossam Kimchi
Spring Nabak Kimchi, Minari Kimchi, Samdongch'u Kimchi, Baech'u Minari Kimchi
Summer Oi Sobagi Kimchi, Yeolmu Kimchi, Beach'u Kimchi, Gaji Kimchi, Kongnip Kimchi
Fall Kongnip Kimchi, Goldulbaggi Kimchi


Seoul / Kyonggi Province
Kimchi in the capital city and the surrounding region features a variety of luxurious food and delicacies since it has diverse types of agricultural and seafood products, as well as being the center of commerce for Korea.
Undried Insam (ginseng) Kimchi, Misam Kimchi, Hobak Mu-u (pumpkin radish) Kimchi, Sunmu (turnip) Kimchi, Chae Kimchi, Baech'u Kimchi, Mu-u Kimchi, Bae Kimchi
North and South Ch'ungch'ong Provinces
Located in the middle of Korean Peninsula, the area has a moderate rainfall and enriched soil, producing a wealth of rice, vegetables, wild herbs, and greens. These people use fewer condiments since they enjoy the mild and soft taste.
Gul Ggaktugi (oyster and sliced radishes), Hobak (pumpkin) Kimchi, Shigukch'i (spinach) Kimchi, Kaji (eggplant) Kimchi, Bae Kimchi, Sedum Kimchi
Kimch291.jpg Kangwon Province
This area has good crop of grains and wild herbs, as well as a developed industry for seafood and processed fish products. most of the local kimchi products feature seafood.
Chanran (fish paste and sliced radish) kimchi, Sikhae, Ojingeo Mu-u (squid radish) Kimchi
North and South Cholla Provinces
Kimch292.jpg No place in Korea has the natural source of food materials like crops, fishery, and wild vegetables more than the Cholla Provinces. The food culture here has been developed for many generations, and this area has become the homeland for traditional Korean food.

This area's kimchi is stronger and spicier than other since it is mainly seasoned with pickled shellfish and salted anchovies.

Baech'u Kimchi with anchovies, Yak (medicine) Kimchi, O-i (cucumber) Kimchi, Kaji Kimchi, Goguma (sweet potato stem) kimchi, Goch'u Ip' (red pepper leaves) Kimchi, Dolgat (mustard leaf) Kimchi, Goldulbagi (Korean lettuce) Kimchi

North and South Kyongsang Provinces
Kimch293.jpg Located along south and west coasts, North and South Kyongsang Provinces are abundant with various types of seafood.

K'ongnip (bean leaf) Kimchi, Ggaet'ip (sesame leaf) Kimchi, Goguma (sweet potato stem) Kimchi, Uong (burdock) Kimchi, Myeolch'i Baech'u (cabbage with anchovies) Kimchi, Manul Julgi (garlic stem) Kimchi, Gaji (eggplant) Kimchi, T'oran (taro root) Kimchi, Bak (gourd) Kimchi, Sseumbagwi (lettuce) Kimchi, Minari (dropwort) Kimchi, Gam (parsimon) Kimchi, Muumallaengi (dried radish) Kimchi, Ssuggat (Korean lettuce) Kimchi
Kimch294.jpg Cheju Island
Cheju island is located off the southern tip of Korea, and is Korea's largest island. The area is unique and distinctive. The geographical characteristic of the island enables it to use rich and extensive seafood products to make kimchi.
Jeonbok (abalone) kimchi, Haemul (seafood) kimchi, Nabak (square cut radish) kimchi
Hwanghae Province (North Korea)
This area is known for its good quality of crops, fruits, and diverse kinds of seafood. The taste of the food is very mild, and the local people have a reputation for serving plenty of food.
Kimch296.jpg P'yongyang Province (North Korea)
P'yongyang Province has cold and long winters, and people here enjoy food made from meat, beans, and green peas to endure the long winter. The kimchi is mild and less salty than in other areas.
Naengmyeon Kyeoul Baech'u (cold noodle winter cabbage) Kimchi, Gabi (eggplant) Kimchi, Dongch'imi (water radish)
Kimch297.jpg Hamkyong Province (Nother Korea)
The kimchi from this area is mild, watery, and use less chili red pepper than other areas. It is also made with representative seafood products from this area.
Dongch'imi (water radish), Bae (white) kimchi, Kongnamul (bean sprout) kimchi, Ssuk (mugwort) Kimchi, Hamkyung Province Daegu Ggaktugi (cod with sliced radish)

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